One of the most common and popular finishing materials is drywall. It can be used for a variety of purposes: from wall alignment to the manufacture of multi-level ceiling structures. Let us consider in more detail the characteristics of this material and get acquainted with its features.
What it is?
Drywall is a building material, which is a perfectly flat sheet, it consists of two layers of special cardboard and core. The second component consists of solid gypsum dough with the addition of various fillers. In addition, gypsum board contains adhesives and foaming agents designed specifically for gypsum.
Most often, this easy-to-use material is used to equip even skins , lightweight partitions and ceilings (single-level and multi-level). Various dry fixtures are often installed in drywall, and this can be not only an ordinary spotlight, but also a full-fledged chandelier.
Too heavy and large appliances to hang on drywall foundations is not recommended, as they may not withstand impressive loads.
Such a popular material as drywall is practical. It can be used for various purposes: with the help of this malleable raw material, it is possible to independently manufacture various designs without spending large sums and without spending a lot of time on it.
Plasterboard sheets can be used not only for internal but also for external decoration, for example, it can be the decoration of the facade of a private house, and with the help of high-quality waterproof gypsum board you can create a very beautiful and original composition that will transform the exterior of the house.
Drywall has its pros and cons, which you should know about before buying it.
To begin with, let's take a closer look at the advantages this finishing material boasts.
- Drywall sheets have a perfectly flat surface, which is why they can be purchased to level rough foundations. It can be a floor, and a ceiling, and walls. The main thing is to do all the work correctly and accurately prepare the basics for the installation of gypsum.
- Drywall is characterized by high thermal conductivity. For example, in a room with walls supplemented with GKL sheets, a comfortable microclimate and optimal air temperature will always be maintained.
- This finishing material can be used to make various designs.
- Another advantage of drywall is environmental friendliness: it is absolutely safe for households, as it does not contain toxic compounds.
- Materials manufactured in accordance with GOST are fireproof (do not burn and do not support flame).
- Gypsum sheets have excellent soundproofing properties.
- Also, this finishing material is distinguished by vapor permeability. Due to this characteristic, various bacteria do not multiply on its surface, and traces of mold or fungus do not appear.
- Drywall is inexpensive, so almost every buyer can afford it.
- In the installation of this material, you can use not only the frame: it can be attached with glue and even construction foam.
- Drywall can be combined with insulation. In addition, there are such varieties of panels that protect the insulation cloth from negative external factors.
- It is very simple to work with plasterboard sheets, for this special expensive tools are not needed.
- Using drywall, you can implement the most innovative design ideas.
- This finishing material does not exude unpleasant and pungent odors.
- GKL is easy to process: it can be painted, finished with wallpaper, tile and other popular materials.
- Drywall, just purchased at the store, can immediately be used in repair work: it does not require special training.
Despite the large number of advantages, drywall has its own weaknesses.
- This material is not recommended for installation in rooms with a high level of humidity. This is due to the fact that drywall under such conditions will eventually become wet and collapse due to oversaturation with moisture. Even high-quality sheets that tolerate contact with water begin to deform over time.
- Drywall may begin to crumble. It is not recommended to hang heavy objects (lamps, paintings, flower pots) on a nail hammered into a plaster sheet. Otherwise, the fasteners can simply fall out of their base.
- It is worth being careful not to damage the gypsum sheets, since they do not differ in increased strength.
- Plasterboard sheets have a rigid structure, therefore, does not withstand bumps or bends.
What are the types?
A rare consumer knows that there are several varieties of drywall on the market. Each of them has its own characteristics, as well as advantages and disadvantages. Let's consider them in more detail.
First of all, you should consider what categories of this material exist.
- GCR is a simple drywall of gray color, which is universal. It can only be used in dry rooms with a normal level of humidity. Protection from dampness and moisture, as well as fire-resistant characteristics of this material are absent.
- GKLV is gypsum plasterboard sheets having a green color. They are highly resistant to moisture. Such finishing material can be safely used in the kitchen, toilet or bathroom.
- GKLO - this abbreviation belongs to fire-resistant drywall, the characteristics of which we will consider below.
- GKLVO - this is the name of gypsum board sheets with increased resistance to moisture. They combine the useful characteristics of materials such as GKVL and GKLO.
Now consider the properties of all types of drywall in more detail.
This finishing material is designed specifically for facing floors in a private house or apartment. As a rule, the color of the wallboard is gray, and the markings on it are applied with blue paint.
Currently, ceiling plasterboard is in great demand. It is used for the manufacture of beautiful and voluminous structures installed on the ceiling. Using this material, you can form a simple single-level or multi-level box.
The thinnest and lightest are arched sheets of drywall. Thanks to these distinctive characteristics, the materials can be bent without fear of cracking and other damage. Moreover, before direct installation, it does not need to be sprayed with water for additional ductility.
Using this flexible finishing material, you can make beautiful columns , interior arches, semi-arches, niches, as well as original round or oval walls. The thickness of the arched gypsum board is 6.5 mm, this indicator is mediocre, therefore, most often such sheets are mounted in two layers.
This is a soundproof and perforated material, which is quite rare. A feature of acoustic sheets is that their surface has a large number of small holes. Their diameter is 1 cm, the back side of the sheet is complemented by a soundproof coating, such as spanbond.
This type of drywall is most often used in the decoration of ceilings and ceilings in recording studios, special music rooms, pump rooms and other spaces where high-quality sound insulation is required.
GKLO (decoding - fire-resistant gypsum fiber sheet) - this non-combustible material is also facing and very wear-resistant. Such finishing materials are indispensable in places where there are increased requirements for fire safety. For example, such a drywall can sheathe a chimney or fireplace.
In addition, fire-resistant gypsum is often used in the lining of mines. In the core of such sheets there is a considerable number of fibers and special additives necessary for reinforcement.
This type of drywall is less moody and more practical. It must be installed in rooms with a high level of humidity. This material has a core and cardboard, characterized by an unusual composition, thanks to which it is not afraid of moisture.
In addition, as part of the moisture-proof fabric, special antiseptic additives are observed that protect it from the appearance of mold and fungus.
Moistureproof and fireproof
This type of drywall is one of the most practical and wear-resistant, since it combines the beneficial properties of both GKLV and GKLO. It is often addressed when facing production facilities with a high level of humidity and high fire safety requirements.
Such drywall is considered a new generation of finishing material. It is manufactured using the latest technology developed in Germany. The basis of the laminated sheets is a special drywall on a woven base.
This high-tech material is characterized by wear resistance, ease of maintenance, quick and easy installation, as well as the absence of self-tapping screws.
Laminated drywall is also decorative, as it can imitate various materials not bad: wood, natural stone, brick, different types of fabric. A simple painted sheet cannot boast of a similar appearance.
Facade gypsum plasterboard panels perfectly cope not only with the function of decorating the house, but also with its insulation, as well as protection from adverse external factors. For this, such materials have an appropriate structure - the front layer of facade panels is impregnated with special hydrophobic agents. This treatment protects the substrate from moisture.
Many consumers choose the facade gypsum board , since it acts as an energy-saving coating that stops the loss of warm air and insulation fibers. This material is installed quite easily and is fireproof. It is inexpensive and does not require complicated care.
This type of drywall is very often laid on the floor. It has a special reinforcing layer consisting of fiberglass. Due to its composition, this material is also called gypsum fiber. In it, reinforcement occurs immediately on both sides of the cardboard layer, which ensures high panel strength.
The back and front sides of reinforced drywall are treated with a special substance - water repellent, it makes the material moisture resistant and more durable.
Reinforced drywall can withstand impressive loads, as it is made specifically for the floor. It is also additionally polished and coated with various impregnations that protect the material from chalking. However, the service life of these sheets largely depends on their proper installation.
Different types of GCR have different technical characteristics and dimensional parameters:
- wall panels: width - 1.2 m, length - 2.3 m, 2.5 m, thickness - 12.5 mm;
- ceiling material differs from wall material only in thickness, constituting 9.5 mm;
- moisture resistant sheets can have a length of 2.3 m, 2.5 m, a width of 1.2 m, and a thickness of 12.5 mm;
- the parameters of fire-resistant drywall sheets can be: length - 2 m, 2.5 m, 3 m, the width and thickness of such materials remain standard and are 1.2 m or 12.5 mm;
- arched drywall has a very small thickness of 6.5 mm.
For the manufacture of interior partitions, it is recommended to use plasterboard sheets, characterized by a large thickness - 14-21 mm. Such materials have high sound insulation. They are not afraid of impressive loads and mechanical damage.
Of course, the drywall sheet may also have a different length, different from the above parameters. So, some modern companies produce shorter panels. They cost a little more than standard options, but working with them is much easier. Such sheets are most often used in the design of the ceiling in the toilet, bathroom, hallway or corridor.
Most manufacturers in the production of drywall still adhere to three main standards of sizes:
- 3000x1200 mm;
- 2500x1200 mm;
- 2000x1200 mm.
Each type of drywall is characterized by its own color:
- standard drywall is gray;
- moisture resistant - green, and the markings on it are blue;
- flame-retardant material is painted in pink or light gray with red marking;
- moisture-proof and fireproof drywall has a green color and red marking.
Necessary tools and accessories
When working with drywall, the use of various components is necessary, you can not do without them even with the most simple repair work. One of the most important is metal profiles, with their use a strong and reliable frame is assembled, which is then sheathed with gypsum panels.
These necessary elements can be divided into three types:
- for facing walls and partitions;
- the ceiling;
- special guides.
Metal profiles designed for walls and partitions are guides and racks.
- Guide varieties are specifically labeled UD. Such parts are used for high-quality fastening of racks and guide rails of the frame under drywall.
- The sewage profile plays the role of the main rail for the installation of drywall sheets, to which the entire skin is fastened. Similar items are labeled CD.
More narrowly focused are special guides. For example, there are special racks designed only for doorways, to which entire entrance systems are subsequently attached.
There are also special arched options that can be adjusted to the desired configuration.
The combination of all these components, bonded with a special material, as a result gives a fairly strong and reliable frame. A well-made construction will easily withstand significant loads, as well as the weight of the entire gypsum cladding. As a rule, guides are machined with zinc, which protects them from corrosion and slow destruction, which makes the frame for decoration almost timeless.
To work with drywall, you should stock up with other necessary components.
- Direct suspensions . They are the main elements of the frame for gypsum sheets and are a rectangular plate. These parts are necessary to connect the frame racks with bearing ceilings.
- Connectors for CD-rails (another name - "crabs"). This element is necessary for connecting the ends of the profile in a single-level plane.
- Two-level connectors. They are necessary to connect the rails of the frame crosswise.
- Anchor suspensions. These details are needed for the basis for drywall. As a rule, they are used in the decoration of the ceiling. The main task of anchor suspensions is to connect the base directly to the ceiling.
- Profile Extenders. These elements make the frame rails a little longer. They need to be installed in the inside of the profiles and fixed with self-tapping screws.
- Corner connectors. These parts can also be T-shaped. These elements should be addressed if you are perpendicular to the profile joining another rail.
To work with drywall sheets, you will need various tools:
- screwdriver - with its help you can fix the frame, for example, on the wall;
- hammer drill - this tool is necessary for more reliable mounting of the frame on a wall, ceiling or floor, it must have sufficient power for such work;
- electric drill ;
- the grinder is useful for cutting profile parts and cutting off excess parts of the resulting structure;
- a circular saw or an electric jigsaw is useful for cutting drywall;
- electric scissors are indispensable for cutting metal, if you need to build a large structure with plasterboard panels;
- an assembly gas gun is needed for automatic fastening of self-tapping screws, which saves time on installation of the structure.
From hand tools in working with drywall you will need:
- a special knife for drywall;
- drywall knife;
- a hammer;
- tongs for fastening profiles;
- profile punch;
- edge planer;
- needle roller.
In working with GLK sheets, other devices may be needed that will significantly simplify and speed up the installation process:
- a device for focusing on the ceiling, which is a special lever with a lock, with its help it will turn out to hold the panel in the correct vertical position;
- handles for transfer - curved steel handles necessary for safer carrying drywall sheets;
- Roulette, which is necessary for accurate measurements;
- building level;
- mounting belt;
- a drywall for drywall sheets;
- special chop cords;
- runners or boards for leveling the metal profile;
- corner and pencil or marker;
- sealing tape;
- putty for plasterboard corners putty.
All tools and accessories must be high quality and reliable, otherwise the design will not last long and may be deformed.
Do not forget that one of the main roles in a high-quality and attractive gypsum finish is played by a strong and reliable frame, so all the components must be selected especially responsibly.
DIY selection and finish
Finishing one or another base with drywall can be done with your own hands. All the necessary tools and accessories were listed above, so you can only wisely approach the choice of the gypsum sheets themselves.
The selection of suitable panels mainly depends on the conditions in which they will be located.
- For a bathroom, pool or toilet, it is recommended to purchase exclusively moisture-resistant material, since ordinary drywall in such conditions will quickly fail.
- For the kitchen, it is worth picking up more expensive stoves that are both moisture resistant and fireproof.
- A simple drywall can also be used in the bedroom or living room. You need to handle it as carefully as possible, since it is quite fragile, but it is inexpensive and lasts as long as possible.
- In the hallway and corridor, both ordinary and moisture-proof material is used. It all depends on how the area data is applied in your house or apartment.
It is recommended to buy material only from a trusted and well-known manufacturer: do not look for cheap drywall sheets, since this material is already inexpensive. Too low a price may indicate a low quality of the product, such sheets will not last long and will quickly become worthless, so you should refuse excessive savings.
In order for the drywall finish to last as long as possible and look aesthetically pleasing, the following step-by-step instruction should be followed. Consider the stages of installation on the example of wall decoration.
First, you need to mark the walls with the help of a level and a special pencil or marker. It is necessary to draw lines designed for fastening a metal profile. As for the sizes, they should be removed using a tape measure or a large ruler.
Experienced craftsmen advise sticking special rubber strips on the profiles before installation, otherwise they are called soles. In this case, they will play the role of sealants. Based on pre-drawn lines, you need to attach the frame. To do this, drill holes of the correct size in the ceiling and floor. In the profiles, these actions do not need to be performed, since the necessary holes must be present in them initially.
Vertical profiles must be fastened using brackets or conventional self-tapping screws in guides that should already be installed on the ceiling and floor. Installation of vertical parts should be done in increments of 0.5-1 cm. Fix profiles should be as strong and reliable as possible, as this will affect the quality of fastening of the drywall sheet. Often the installation of drywall is carried out on various heaters or soundproofing sheets, for example, polystyrene or mineral wool.
Using drywall, you can not only efficiently align walls, but also hide ugly wires and various communications behind the wall. The wiring must be carried out before installing the sheets themselves, otherwise they will have to be dismantled.
After the competent preparation and installation of the frame, you can proceed directly to the installation of drywall panels. For high-quality and reliable fastening, a screwdriver should be used, working with this tool will take much less time and take less power. Installation of gypsum surfaces should begin with their alignment. Keep in mind that for this it is necessary to pre-cut holes for the socket and places for installing bulbs.
To make the edges of the gypsum sheets more even and accurate, each edge can be machined with an electric jigsaw or a plane.
After carefully aligning, the drywall sheets can be installed on the frame. It is better to fix them with screws, these parts should be fastened in increments of 20-25 cm. If there is a window prem or door on the finished floor, then the drywall sheet must be fixed along the edge sections of these elements. It is necessary that the sheet is attached to the base neatly and correctly.
Many home masters wonder how long it will take to install drywall on the frame. First of all, it all depends on the area of the room in which you are doing the finishing work. If we are talking about a very spacious room, then it can take 2-3 days to install GLK sheets.
After installing and fixing all the drywall sheets, you should proceed to the installation of such trifles as sockets, switches and lighting fixtures.
When all the most difficult and time-consuming is left behind, you can proceed to the finish, the most difficult moment, as a rule, is hiding the joints between the sheets. To do this, it is recommended to use putty, but before that, a special reinforcing strip should be attached to unaesthetic elements.
When all the joints become invisible, you can proceed directly to the decoration of drywall: here everything depends entirely on your desires and preferences. This material can be painted, papered, and decorated with decorative stone, brick and many other decorative coatings.
In the bathroom and toilet
Drywall installation can be done in the bathroom and toilet. Of course, for this you should choose moisture-resistant boards that are not afraid of dampness and moisture.
- In such rooms, you should first prepare the walls for the installation of drywall.
- If we are talking about mounting sheets without a supporting crate, then first you will need to get rid of all the potholes and cracks on the walls. Conventional cement will help you with this.
- After this base should be treated with a disinfectant and a primer mixture (resistant to moisture).
- Then you need to apply glue to the walls and plasterboard sheets with a roller.
- All seams and joints between parts should be carefully waterproofed.
- After gluing, go through the finish with waterproof waterproof putty.
How to install plasterboard sheets on metal frames, we have already considered earlier.
However, drywall can be used in the bathroom not only for wall or ceiling decoration - it can also be made with it:
- a masking box hiding pipes;
- decorative box or screen for the bath;
- preparing plaster baths for future cladding - you can glue tiles or ceramic tiles onto drywall;
- closing the window separating the bathroom and the kitchen.
In addition, on the plasterboard walls in the bathroom, you can fix a dressing table, sink and cabinet with a mirror. Of course, for this it is recommended to choose lighter objects.
For the hallway
Drywall is a universal material, so it can be safely used in the hallway, most often the owners will equip a functional dressing room in this room.
- To make such a design, you will need to attach the guides to the walls, and to the floor, and to the ceiling.
- Then you need to fix the racks to which the drywall sheets will be attached. A distance of at least 60 cm should remain between these elements.
- Do not forget to mark the sections of the doorway.
- In the design, it is necessary to strengthen the racks on which the doors will be mounted. This is necessary so that the frame does not deform under their weight.
- Next, one of the sides of the structure should be sheathed with drywall. At this stage, foam can be installed in the interior or on the flaps, which will act as a soundproofing canvas. After installing the facing of one side, go to the second. Finishing it, we can assume that the work is almost complete.
- Now you can proceed to puttying and decorating the dressing room.
Plasterboard designs are very common in bedrooms. With their help, it is possible to form not only a multi-level ceiling, but also a convenient window sill of optimal size or to make a neat hidden curtain rod specifically for curtains. So, for the latter, it is necessary to determine the depth and width of the niche in which the curtains and curtains will be located, as well as measure the position of these parts in the upper and lower planes.
According to the marked markers on the wall and ceiling, two lines must be recaptured (along special coated threads). An indent of 20-25 cm should be maintained. After this, adhering to the marking, you need to install guide profiles for the frame, screws and plastic dowels should be used as fasteners. After that, you can proceed to the direct fastening of the frame parts: you need to insert a wider profile into the inside of the box. It must be fixed on the outer side with suspensions attached to the ceiling with screws.
Now, on the broken line, you need to drill several holes and insert dowels made of plastic into them in order to install suspensions and fix a second wide profile on them.
If you have installed all the necessary elements of the frame, you can proceed to plastering them with plasterboard. To do this, through the frame itself, a strip of gypsum should be screwed onto the screws. However, do not forget about the preliminary preparation of the necessary excavations in the areas of dry plaster. They need to be done on floors where vertical sections of the profile are installed. Screws are recommended to be screwed in increments of 20 cm.
To install vertical stripes, you need a base to which drywall will be attached. Data collection of parts should be based on the depth of the niche. So, for example, if this parameter is 10 cm, it will be quite enough to connect the sides of the guide and the ceiling profile. Leave the ends of the guide protruding beyond the ends of the profile by 20-30 cm. Of course, the dimensions of the niches can be absolutely any: profiles of suitable sizes can be selected for each option.
Next, proceed with the assembly of the wall of the niche. The plasterboard strip must be screwed to a pre-prepared base. This is more convenient to do on the floor, since there will be very little free space between the wall and the assembly place, which will prevent the use of such a tool as a screwdriver. The gypsum strip should be sawed off, leaving a small margin of width, since then the ceiling will also be glued onto it.
Now you can proceed directly to the installation of the resulting wall. The part just assembled on the floor should be installed along the edge of the horizontally attached drywall. Similarly, you need to collect the side parts of the niche, for which just one profile is enough (without a guide). These elements should also be attached to the drywall construction.
The final stage of work will be the finishing of the resulting box. It is necessary to putty the corner parts, as well as the areas where the gypsum plating was fixed with screws. After that, you can assemble the frame and make it single or multi-level.
Drywall is often used for lining the attic. In this case, a lot depends on the technical condition of the roof of the house. If it leaves much to be desired, then noticeable smudges will appear on the wall decoration with the first rain. That is why before installing drywall, any damage to the roof must be repaired.
Also an important role is played by beams and rafters. They need to be checked for reliability and strength, and also to make sure that they do not begin to rot or dry out. Do not forget to treat all wooden parts with antiseptic agents.
Plasterboard panels in this case can also be installed on a classic aluminum frame.
- First you need to measure the room in which you are going to install drywall. Calculate everything and buy all the necessary elements.
- The crate should be installed starting from the walls. The marking of the future design should also be transferred to the ceiling and floor.
- Now you need to install frame guides around the perimeter. All sections of the profile must be fixed at least 3 points. The largest distance between the fasteners is a meter.
- Now, in the rails, you should install the racks on the self-tapping screws for metal, and then fix the crossbars. At this stage, communication should be conducted.
- Next, a heater should be installed in the frame cells.
- After that, you can proceed to the installation of drywall boards in increments of 20-25 cm. Finally, finish the material according to the traditional pattern.
Tips & Tricks
When purchasing sheets of drywall, always consider the microclimate in your home, as well as the type of surface on which you are going to install them. It will depend on which materials you will need - moisture resistant, fire resistant or ordinary. Pay special attention to the manufacture of the frame for drywall, its stability and reliability affects the service life of the finish and its aesthetic characteristics.
Even thick drywall should be handled carefully so as not to damage or break it. In most cases, it is not possible to repair damaged parts.
After purchase, drywall should be stored in a dry and warm room, which is better to close. The temperature in the room should not fall below 10 degrees. However, this material is not recommended to be placed too close to heaters or batteries. The surface on which the drywall will be stored must be perfectly even.
Manufacturers and reviews
Among the large number of manufacturers of drywall, the following companies can be distinguished.
- Gyproc. Consumers choose the products of this company because of their affordable cost, practicality and low weight. Of the shortcomings of the drywall of this supplier, people distinguish its fragility and subtlety.
- Danogips Drywall of this manufacturer is very popular. Buyers talk about its flexibility and ease of installation. Such material makes beautiful arches that are not afraid of moisture.
- Knauf. Reviews about the products of this company are mixed. Some buyers were satisfied with its quality, while others claim the fragility of this material and its inconsistency with the declared characteristics. For example, some consumers who bought moisture-proof panels noted that they literally “turn into dust” with an increased level of humidity in the room.
Good examples and options
You can create very interesting and beautiful constructions from the drywall that separate the rooms. They can have wavy or rounded shapes. Often they build small shelves or niches in which they then place various decorative elements.
Effective and original ceilings of unusual shapes are obtained from this material, these designs look especially attractive if they are supplemented with hidden LED strip and spotlights around the entire perimeter.
Drywall in the walls can help build niches. They can have a variety of forms. They often place not only decor, but also various equipment: televisions, music centers and other similar items.
See the video below for more details on drywall installation technology.